Git Reference


  1. Working Directory: where you'll be doing all the work: creating, editing, deleting and organizing files
  2. Staging Area: where you'll list changes you make to the working directory
  3. Repository: where Git permanently stores those changes as different versions of the project



Creating a git repository:

  1. Initialize git in your development folder
    Commands: git init
  2. Configure the git to set email and user name for the repository
      git config –global “<my user name>”
      git config –global “<my email id>”
    Other related commands:
      git config –list
      git status
  3. Add the files to git staging folder/create a snapshot
      Command: git add <file name>
  4. Commit all changes
    Commands: git commit –m “<custom message to identify the change>”
                     : git commit –a –m “<custom message>”
                       //add and commit in a single line
  5. Steps 3 and 4 should be repeated when you make changes to the files.         Check status of git file to see whether commit is required or not.
  6. Tag a release with a version number, when needed.
    Commands: git tag –a <version number> –m “<custom message>”

Modifying/Viewing the repository

  • The switching between versions can be done using checkout command
    Command: git checkout <tag# or commit #>
  • To revert the changes back to certain commit #, you need to first go to Master
      1. git checkout master
      2. git revert <commit #>
  • To revert back uncommitted changes, use the following commands:
    git reset –hard  // Cleans all uncommitted changes
    git clean –f  // Deletes all untracked files
    git reset –hard  //Running again will revert everything back to previous commit
  • To merge changes to master:
    1. Checkout master:
        Command: git checkout master
    2. Now,  merge your branch:
        Command: git merge <branch name>
    3. Delete the branch after merging
        Command: git branch –d <branch name>
  • Another way of integrating changes from one branch to another is Rebasing
    Command: git rebase <branch name>

Creating/Merging Branches

  • To check\list branches;
    Command: git branch
  • To create branch:
    Command: git branch <branch name>
    Shortcut: git checkout –b <new branch> //creates and checks out to the new branch
  • To switch to a branch:
    Command: git checkout <branch name>
  • To merge multiple branches:
    Command: git checkout branch1 // (or branch2) and then
                    git merge branch1 branch2


Commands: Quick Reference

git init : initialize git in a project

git status : inspects the contents of the working directory and staging area

git add <filename>: add/update file to staging

git add . : add/update all files in that folder to staging

git add <filename_1> <filename_2> : add/update multiple files

git commit –m “your message” : commit permanently stores changes from staging area inside repository

git log: Track the history

git log –oneline: Give only one line history for each commits

git log <file name> : This provides the history of a specific file

git checkout HEAD filename: Discards changes in the working directory

git reset HEAD filename: Unstages file changes in the staging area

git reset SHA: Can be used to reset to a previous commit in your commit history

git branch: Lists all a Git project's branches.

git branch branch_name: Creates a new branch.

git checkout branch_name: Used to switch from one branch to another.

git merge branch_name: Used to join file changes from one branch to another.

git branch -d branch_name: Deletes the branch specified.

git clone: Creates a local copy of a remote.

git remote -v: Lists a Git project's remotes.

git fetch: Fetches work from the remote into the local copy.

git merge origin/master: Merges origin/master into your local branch.

git push origin <branch_name>: Pushes a local branch to the origin remote.

git config –list: list all properties in config file

ls –la : List all files including hidden ones

pwd: Displays the preset working directory

git config core.autocrlf false: Avoid replacing LF with CRLF in Windows Environment.